Array Subscript in C Language

Array Subscript in C is an integer type constant or variable name whose value ranges from 0 to  SIZE 1 where SIZE is the total number of elements in the array. Let us now see how we can refer to individual elements of an array of size 5:

Consider the following declarations:

char country[ ] = “India”;

int stud[ ] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

Here both arrays are of size 5. This is because the country is a char array and initialized by a string constant “India” and every string constant is terminated by a null character ‘\0’. And stud is an integer array. country array occupies 5 bytes of memory space whereas stud occupies size of 10 bytes of memory space.

The following table shows how individual array elements of country and stud arrays can be referred:

Element no. Subscript country array stud array
Reference Value Reference Value
1 0 country [0] ‘I’ stud [0] 1
2 1 country [1] ‘N’ stud [1] 2
3 2 country [2] ‘D’ stud [2] 3
4 3 country [3] ‘I’ stud [2] 4
5 4 country [4] ‘A’ stud [4] 5

Reference of individual elements

A program to illustrate how the marks of 10 students are read in an array and then used to find the maximum marks obtained by a student in the class.
/* Program to find the maximum marks among the marks of 10 students*/

# include < stdio.h >

# define SIZE 10 /* SIZE is a symbolic constant */

main ( )

{

int i = 0;

int max = 0;

int stud_marks[SIZE]; /* array declaration */

/* enter the values of the elements */

for( i = 0;i<SIZE;i++)

{

printf (“Student no. =%d”,i+1);

printf(“ Enter the marks out of 50:”);

scanf(“%d”,&amp;amp;stud_marks[i]);

}

/* find maximum */

for (i=0;i<SIZE;i ++)

{

if (stud_marks[i]>max)

max = stud_marks[ i ];

}

printf(“\n\nThe maximum of the marks obtained among all the 10 students is: %d

”,max);

}

 

OUTPUT

Student no. = 1 Enter the marks out of 50: 10

Student no. = 2 Enter the marks out of 50: 17

Student no. = 3 Enter the marks out of 50: 23

Student no. = 4 Enter the marks out of 50: 40

Student no. = 5 Enter the marks out of 50: 49

Student no. = 6 Enter the marks out of 50: 34

Student no. = 7 Enter the marks out of 50: 37

Student no. = 8 Enter the marks out of 50: 16

Student no. = 9 Enter the marks out of 50: 08

Student no. = 10 Enter the marks out of 50: 37

The maximum of the marks obtained among all the 10 students is: 49

 

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